Climate change caused by humankind’s production of greenhouse gases is the defining issue of our time.1

The Environmental Defenders Office represents clients in ground-breaking legal actions to stop projects that will worsen climate change, holds to account those responsible for climate change, and pushes for robust environmental laws to protect future generations.

Efforts to minimise climate change are a central pillar of our work, from legal action involving coal mines and unconventional gas extraction, to land clearing and water resource management. 

Legal Action

EDO litigates on behalf of communities impacted by climate change, taking legal action in courts across Australia to protect our environment and way of life.

We develop landmark cases with local clients to ensure companies are accountable for the climate impacts of their projects and held responsible for the carbon emissions generated by their products. 

The cases we bring are decided on the strength of the evidence and application of the law, free from the influence of the fossil fuel lobby and political opportunism.

The landmark victory on behalf of Groundswell Gloucester in the Rocky Hill coal mine case exhibits the power of communities to progress action on climate via the courts.

This was the first hearing of its kind since the historic Paris Agreement, in which a superior jurisdiction court refused approval of the open cut mine after hearing expert testimony about climate change, the global carbon budget and the impacts of burning fossil fuels.

Read more about the Rocky Hill case

Since Rocky Hill, a second major coal mine has been refused, partly on climate grounds, after EDO lawyers took up the case.

The Bylong Valley coal mine was set to produce 6.5 million tonnes of thermal coal per year.  In refusing the mine, the New South Wales Independent Planning Commision found the mine was not in the public interest because,” the long-term environmental, heritage and agricultural costs will be borne by… future generations.”

Read more about the Bylong case

Law Reform

EDO lawyers and scientists are expert advocates for strong environmental laws to protect our communities and ecosystems from climate change. 

We are the respected and informed voice on climate law in Australia and the Pacific. We advise governments and communities, and influence the development of critical legislation.

EDO regularly contributes to public consultation on climate policy. Recommendations in our submissions include introducing a ‘greenhouse gas trigger’ for development applications involving big carbon polluters, putting a price on carbon and supporting communities in transition away from the fossil fuel industry.

Read our submission to the Climate Change Authority on meeting our Paris Agreement targets:

Read our 2017 submission on Australia’s climate change policy review.

Read our report on Climate-Ready Planning Laws for New South Wales.

The Federal Court has found that Federal Resources Minister Keith Pitt’s decision to grant $21 million of public money to private company Imperial Oil & Gas to pursue fracking in the Beetaloo Basin was invalid.

Federal Court Justice Griffiths found it was “legally unreasonable” for the Minister to enter into contracts over the grants while they were the subject of court proceedings, an action which breached model litigation obligations.

However, the court found that in this particular case, Federal Resources Minister Keith Pitt did not need to consider the risks of climate change when deciding to grant the public money to private company Imperial Oil & Gas to pursue limited exploration in the Beetaloo Basin.

It was found that the greenhouse gas emissions from the seven wells for which the grant was awarded were not significant, due to being solely for exploration for fracking.

“This case was critically important and put fossil fuel subsidies in the spotlight,” said Elaine Johnson, Director of Legal Strategy at EDO.

“The findings reinforced that Federal Ministers have a legal obligation to make reasonable enquiries about the proper use of public money when making funding decisions of this nature,

“In this case, the court found those reasonable enquiries didn’t extend to climate risk given the project does not involve extensive gas extraction and production. 

“Importantly, the door has been left open for climate risks to be considered in other decisions around the use of public funds for fossil fuel projects.”

“Fracking in the Beetaloo Basin would see a significant increase in global emissions, so it is critically important that government is held accountable for any decisions to use public funds for new gas in the Beetaloo.

“This decision underscored the primacy of the rule of law, highlighting the need for the Federal Government to act appropriately and respectfully when litigation is on foot.”

Kirsty Howey, Co-director of Environment Centre NT said the decision “doesn’t close the door on the scrutiny of fossil fuel grants”.

“Fossil fuel subsidies are not a reasonable use of public money. Under Australia’s commitment to the global Glasgow Climate Pact, we need to phase out funding of new oil, gas and coal projects.

“The Northern Territory is already suffering significantly from the impacts of climate change, and this will only worsen unless we take drastic action. Our own Environment Minister recently said that the Northern Territory may become uninhabitable for humans due to climate change. The public has an expectation that taxpayer money will not be used to accelerate climate catastrophe by funding projects that will release vast amounts of emissions, without due consideration of these risks.”

“Unfortunately, we’re being left behind in the global renewables transition by our government, which insists on propping up polluting fossil fuel projects with taxpayers’ funds.”


In July 2021, Minister Keith Pitt announced that the first grants from the $50 million Beetaloo Cooperative Drilling Program would go to Imperial Oil and Gas to support three new exploration wells “to help accelerate development of gas projects in the Northern Territory.” Imperial Oil and Gas is a wholly owned subsidiary of the publicly listed Empire Energy.  

On 29 July 2021, the Environment Centre NT (ECNT), represented by the Environmental Defenders Office (EDO), commenced judicial review proceedings in the Federal Court challenging the lawfulness of the Beetaloo Cooperative Drilling Program and the grants to Imperial. 

The Court heard in November that fracking the Beetaloo Basin could lead to a 13% increase in Australia’s annual greenhouse gas emissions on 2020 levels, and fail to generate any economic benefit.

EDO argued on behalf of ECNT that the Minister was required to make reasonable inquiries into a range of matters before giving Imperial a large amount of taxpayer money, including how exploitation of the Beetaloo sub-basin would impact climate change and Australia’s ability to meet its Paris Agreement obligations.

Grants under this program are subject to the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013 (Cth) which requires that the Minister not approve the expenditure unless he is reasonably satisfied that it is an efficient, effective, economical, and ethical use of public money.

Across Australia, communities like this are on the front line, defending their homes and our future against the impacts of climate change. 

You can help them by donating to our Environmental Defence Fund.


  1. Climate Change:
  2. Australia’s 2030 Climate Change Target: